Replacement of fossil materials by renewable feedstocks is forced by depletion and environmental concerns but requires new technologies for energy generation or production of chemicals. Co-processing of petroleum with renewable feedstocks in current refinery infrastructure is an attractive option in the mid-term to increase renewable fuel capacity, as the capital investment and operational costs would be marginal. In this chapter, various strategies for admixing of phenolic compounds as renewable feeds into standard refineries are described. Starting from the role of renewable resources (e.g. biomass, lignin and bio-oil) in the current and future energy and chemical community, an overview on the present energy supply situation and the role of phenolic compounds are discussed. Later, a summary on co-feeding of phenolic model compounds with conventional feeds in refineries are illustrated. The co-processing of upgraded bio-oil in refinery units [e.g. fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), hydrotreating] is summarized, showing the potential utilisation of bio-feeds via such processes. Finally, some concluding remarks address the perspectives for further research and development to overcome future challenges.
Part of the book: Phenolic Compounds