III-Nitride-based heterostructures are well suited for the fabrication of various optoelectronic devices such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), laser diodes (LDs), high-power/high-frequency field-effect transistors (FETs), and tandem solar cells because of their inherent properties. However, the heterostructures grown along polar direction are affected by the presence of internal electric field induced by the existence of intrinsic spontaneous and piezoelectric polarizations. The internal electric field is deleterious for optoelectronic devices as it causes a spatial separation of electron and hole wave functions in the quantum wells, which thereby decreases the emission efficiency. The growth of III-nitride heterostructures in nonpolar or semipolar directions is an alternative option to minimize the piezoelectric polarization. The heterostructures grown on these orientations are receiving a lot of focus due to their potential improvement on the efficiency of optoelectronic devices. In the present chapter, the growth of polar and nonpolar III-nitride heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system and their characterizations are discussed. The transport properties of the III-nitride heterostructure-based Schottky junctions are also included. In addition, their applications toward UV and IR detectors are discussed.
Part of the book: Epitaxy