Carotenoid biosynthesis is influenced by some aspects and is liable to geometric isomerisation with the existence of oxygen, light, and heat, which affect color degradation and oxidation. The major problems related to carotenoid accumulation inherently originate from pigment instability. This chapter discusses an overview on the influence of stringent control of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors toward carotenoid biogenesis in potato minitubers through the potential model system for rapid initiation, extraction, and analysis of carotenoids. The outcome of this experimental system is a discovery of variables regulating carotenoid accumulation as a result of the environmental change assessment through manipulation of drought stress, light intensity, and nutrient strength on carotenoid accumulation.
Part of the book: Carotenoids
Slope failure has become a major concern in Malaysia due to the rapid development and urbanisation in the country. It poses severe threats to any highway construction industry, residential areas, natural resources, as well as tourism activities. Thus, this study aims to characterise the relationship between chromaticity variables to be manipulated as indicators to forecast slope failure. The concentration of each soil property in slope soil was evaluated from two different localities that consist of 120 soil samples from stable and unstable slopes located along North South Highway and East West Highway. Indicators that could be used to predict shallow slope failure were high value of variable L*(62), low values of variables c* (20) and h* (66). Furthermore, the hues that indicate stable slope based on Munsell Soil Colour Chart are between 2.5YR and 5YR while the hues that indicate unstable slope are between 5YR and 10YR. The overall analysis leads to the conclusion that the reactions and distinctive changes of chromaticity variables between stable and unstable slopes were emphasised as results of significant differences between soil properties, the locations, slope stability and combinations of all interactions.
Part of the book: Failure Analysis and Prevention