Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) is considered a starchy root crop that provides staple food for millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Research efforts are directed toward genetic breeding and cultivation of cassava to improve cassava storage root starch production, nutritional values, and industrial utilization. Cassava storage root (CSR) is a vegetative storage organ with indeterminate type of growth that has a central cylinder (edible part) originated by the swelling of primary root and crown roots. Comprehensive studies on thickened primary root (secondary growth) are rare, incomplete, and to a certain extent, missing. In this chapter, we review and forward studies that move our knowledge on cassava storage root (CSR). CSR generally forms up to 12–14 storage root (SR) per plant, which can originate from three sources of propagating plant materials as well as being induced in vivo and in vitro. Types of storage root (morphologically defined), CSR physiology, tissue anatomy/histology (secondary growth), chemical composition of the edible part, biochemical features, gene expression and proteomics as secondary growth proceeds are of major importance in order to breed cassava plant for agriculture utilization. Storage root morphology varies in shape from cylindrical to globular. Time to initiation of storage root formation varies from 45 to 90 days after planting (DAP), depending on the leaf auxiliary bud position in the vegetative propagating material at the plant source. Storage root growth, starch accumulation, and nutrient contents are largely dependent on genotypes. Storage root anatomy can be identified by eight characteristics common to a root with secondary growth and starch reserve variants. Histological characterizations can be used to identify cell types of primary and secondary meristems, procambium, vascular cambium, phellogen, phelloderm, primary and secondary xylem and phloem, storage parenchyma and sclerenchyma. Three types of meristematic cell differentiations occur as secondary growth proceeds; one due to cork cambium with plane perpendicularly oriented cell division, second due to plane longitudinally oriented cell division in the root apex, and third longitudinally oriented in the epidermal cells. Chemical composition of the storage root varies in the central cylinder (edible part) depending on the sample position in the root and the plant genotype. Therefore, biochemical characteristics are known to change with tissue age as secondary growth proceeds. Moreover, the composition of stored starch varies with tissue age across the central cylinder and may be used as a physiological indicator for bulk storage root maturation and storage root harvest time.
Part of the book: Cassava
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) provides a staple food source for millions of people in tropical and subtropical world regions. Brazil is the major center of diversification for species of the Manihot, and a center for domestication of the cultivated species originated from wild ancestral M. esculenta subsp. flabellifolia. Genetic breeding of cassava depends on landraces. Molecular phylogenetic technologies used to study genetic traits selected by mankind in crops, are likely to predict proposed “domestication syndrome.” Phylogenetic trees use DNA sequences alignment to infer on gene historical events. A study on regulatory and structural complexity that dictates gene/protein function, will add non-sequence information to predict a more complete understanding of functional evolution. Transcriptional profile contains critical information on when and where a gene is manifested. These regulatory properties could explain functional genes diversity achieved within gene families across closely related species such as cassava and its ancestor. Microarray technologies measure transcriptional response of gene to a given environmental or genetic factor. Integration of genomic and transcriptomic data provides more detailed picture of molecular evolution. This chapter describes comprehensive study using the wild relative of cassava ancestor, recognition of natural morphological trait changes during domestication, and gene expression of cassava storage root.
Part of the book: Cassava