Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a rare but fatal disease with an incidence of less than 5000 new cases per year in the United States. Less than 20% of GBC cases are diagnosed preoperatively. The remaining cases are diagnosed either after laparoscopic cholecystectomy or intraoperatively. GBC is discovered incidentally during histopathology following 0.25–3.0% of laparoscopic cholecystectomies; however, this constitutes 74–92% of all GBC. The most pivotal and important step is accurate patient staging. Staging dictates disease management and treatment options and predicts survival. Because of the fatality of GBC and its poor prognosis, attempts of curative surgery are limited to localized resectable disease.
Part of the book: Updates in Gallbladder Diseases
Cholangiocarcinoma arises from the epithelial lining of the biliary tree. It accounts for approximately 3% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. This chapter looks at the new advances that have been made in the management of distal cholangiocarcinoma, based on a literature review. Diagnosis of the disease resides mainly in clinical presentation and radiological diagnosis and biopsy indicated in selected cases. Surgical resection is the main curative treatment for distal cholangiocarcinoma, and resectability of the tumor can now be assessed using multiple radiological imaging studies. Resection margins and lymph node invasion status are the two important prognostic factors after surgery. Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the standard surgical treatment of choice in distal cholangiocarcinoma; however, combined major vascular and hepatopancreaticoduodenectomy can be indicated in selected cases. Adjuvant therapy is clearly indicated after surgical resection with survival improvement, but optimal adjuvant treatment strategy has not yet been established.
Part of the book: Bile Duct Cancer