Glutamate, a major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, plays a vital role in many physiological processes and is one of the key neurotransmitters of interest in psychopharmacology. It is involved in many normal and abnormal behaviors related to neurological and psychiatric disorders. The glutamate system has been proposed to play a significant role in various neurological and psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, autism, schizophrenia, depression, drug addiction, and more. The design, construction, and optimization of enzyme-based electrochemical biosensors for in vivo and in vitro detection of glutamate are active areas of interdisciplinary research. For example, various glutamate biosensors have been developed for monitoring dynamic levels of extracellular glutamate in the living brain tissue adding to the current medical knowledge of these complex neurotransmitter systems and ultimately impacting treatment plans. In addition to biological sciences and clinical medicine, glutamate biosensors have been used in environmental monitoring, in the fermentation industry, and in the food industry for determination of monosodium glutamate (MSG), a common flavor-enhancing food additive.
Part of the book: Electrochemical Sensors Technology