The aortic root has a complex anatomy due to a combination of several anatomical structures based on simple and consistent work in it. It is a hollow cylinder with three bulges, which have the main functional effect on the aortic valve opening-closing cycle and coronary circulation. Aneurysm is defined as a dilation of a blood vessel segment having ≥50% increase in diameter, whereas annuloaortic ectasia represents a diffuse dilation <50% of the normal diameter of the related vessel segment. Aortic root aneurysms mostly occur by degenerative processes as compared with primarily atherosclerotic changes in the descending and abdominal aortas: medial fragmentation, smooth muscle cells necrosis, and elastic fiber fragmentations with cystic spaces in the media filled with mucoid material. Because of the elevated mortality risk associated with complications, an effective aortic root aneurysm management depends on reduction the risk of death, rupture, and dissection. Conventional open heart surgery is the essential procedure for isolated aortic root replacement and a type of procedure (valve replacement or sparing) could be selected due to the pathology. An extensive aortic root replacement technique is the only option to rebuild the left ventricular outflow tract due to the reconstruction of the neo aortoventricular continuity in the aortic root abscess.
Part of the book: Aortic Aneurysm