Electroencephalography (EEG) has evolved over the years to be one of the primary diagnostic technologies providing information concerning the dynamics of spontaneous and stimulated electrical brain activity. The core question of EEG is to acquire the precise location and strength of the sources inside the human brain by knowledge of an electrical potential measured on the scalp. But in what way is the source recovered? Leaving aside the biological mechanisms on the cellular level responsible for the recorded EEG signals, we pay attention to the mathematical aspects of the narrative. Our goal is to provide a brief and concise introduction of the mathematical terminology associated with the modality of EEG. We start from the very beginning, presenting step by step the mathematical formulation behind EEG in a simple and clear manner, keeping the mathematical notation to a minimum. Whilst we serve only the key relations for the described problems, we focus specifically on the limitations of each modelling approach. In this fashion, the reader can appreciate the beauty of the formulas presented and discover every single piece of information encoded within these formulas.
Part of the book: Electroencephalography