In this chapter, novel designs of tapered-dipole nanoantennas are investigated for energy harvesting applications. A full systematic analysis for the proposed structure is presented where the harvesting efficiency, return loss, radiation pattern, and near-field enhancement are calculated using a finite-element frequency domain solver. Simulation results show that the proposed nanoantennas can achieve a harvesting efficiency of 60% at a wavelength of 500 nm where the antenna input impedance is matched to that of fabricated rectifying devices. Additionally, the cross-tapered nanoantenna offers a near-field enhancement factor of 252 V/m, which is relatively high compared to previously reported nanoantennas. The spatial and spectral resonance modes are investigated, and the simulation results indicate the ability of the cross geometry to be utilized in color-sorting applications. Moreover, the particle swarm optimization technique is adapted to configure the proposed designs for maximum performance.
Part of the book: Nanoplasmonics
Light trapping is crucial for low-cost and highly efficient nanowire (NW) solar cells (SCs). In order to increase the light absorption through the NWSCs, plasmonic materials can be incorporated inside or above the NW design. In this regard, two novel designs of plasmonic NWSCs are reported and analyzed using 3D finite difference time domain method. The geometrical parameters of the reported designs are studied to improve their electrical and optical efficiencies. The ultimate and power conversion efficiencies (PCE) are used to quantify the conversion efficiency of the light into electricity. The first design relies on funnel shaped SiNWs with plasmonic core while the cylindrical NWs of the second design are decorated by Ag diamond shaped. The calculated ultimate efficiency and PCE of the plasmonic funnel design are equal to 44% and 18.9%, respectively with an enhancement of 43.3 % over its cylindrical NWs counterpart. This enhancement can be explained by the coupling between the three optical modes, supported by the upper cylinder, lower cone and plasmonic material. Moreover, the cylindrical SiNWs decorated by Ag diamond offer an ultimate efficiency and short-circuit current density of 25.7%, and 21.03 mA∕cm2, respectively with an improvement of 63% over the conventional cylindrical SiNWs.
Part of the book: Nanowires