This chapter reviews two oleaginous fruits that are widely consumed by people in the Amazon region: Bacaba (Oenocarpus bacaba) and Açaí (Euterpe oleracea). Besides their food and the folk medicinal uses, studies suggest that substances present in both berries have antioxidative effects, antimicrobial, and therapeutic properties such as hypocholesterolemic and neuroprotection effects. These therapeutic effects are related to phenolic compounds, anthocyanins, and fatty acids, which can prevent serious problems such as coronary heart disease, hypertension, and depression. The use of supercritical fluid technology is described as a technique to obtain the best extracts of bacaba and açaí, as well as their valuable constituents. Indubitably, this technology is a great tool for human health and all with the advantage of presenting nontoxic solvents such as carbon dioxide or water. Açaí and bacaba fruits represent not only food but also a source of compounds that can work in both prevention and treatment of diseases.
Part of the book: Superfood and Functional Food
This chapter describes the use of carbon dioxide at high pressures as an alternative for the extraction of bioactive compounds in a more sustainable way, addressing some of its physicochemical properties, such as pressure, temperature, density, solvation, selectivity, and its interaction with the solute when modified by other solvents such as ethanol and water. This extraction process is considered chemically “green,” when compared to conventional extraction processes using toxic organic solvents.
Part of the book: Carbon Dioxide Chemistry, Capture and Oil Recovery
The control of invasive plants is still carried out with the use of synthetic chemical agents that may present high toxicity and, consequently, be harmful to humans and animals. In Brazil, especially in the Amazon, small producers use this kind of technique in a rustic way, with brushcutters or fire. In this sense, the search for natural agents with bioherbicide potential becomes necessary. Examples of these agents are the essential oils that over the years have been shown to be a viable alternative to weed control. Thus, this review aims to show the potentially phytotoxic activity of allelochemicals present in essential oils of different aromatic plants.
Part of the book: Biological Approaches for Controlling Weeds
The use of medicinal plants rich in essential oils can represent a viable source for the control of some diseases, being able to constitute a possible therapeutic alternative due to its effectiveness. Essential oils are natural volatile fractions extracted from aromatic plants and formed by classes of substances such as esters of fatty acids, mono and sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoids, aldehyde alcohols and, in some cases, aliphatic hydrocarbons, among others. Essential oils have been used by mankind for medicinal purposes for several centuries, with reports coming from Ancient Egypt. In this sense, the present work aims to approach the biological activities of essential oils such as antioxidant, anticancer, antiprotozoal, antifungal, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities of different plant matrices rich in essential oils.
Part of the book: Potential of Essential Oils