Rules, formulas, and statistical tests have been widely used in studies that analyze continuous variables with the normal (Gaussian) distribution or defined parameters. Nevertheless, in some studies such as those in gross anatomy, only statistics with discrete or nominal variables are available. In fact, the existence or absence of an anatomical structure, its features and internal aspects, innervation, arterial and vein supplies, etc. can be analyzed as discrete and/or nominal variables. However, there have been no adequate methods, which allow transformation of data with qualitative/nominal variables in gross anatomy to those with quantitative variables. To resolve the issue, we have purposed a new method that allows, in order, descriptions based on numerical analyses, the statistical method for comparative anatomy (SMCA), and proposed the formula for comparison of groups of anatomical structures among different species that allows to infer evolutionary perspective. The important features of this method are as follows: (1) to allow to analyze numerical data, which are converted from discrete or nominal variables in morphological areas and (2) to quantitatively compare identical structures within the same species and across different species. The SMCA fills the lack of a specific method for statistical works in comparative anatomy, morphology, in general, and evolutional correlations.
There are two forms of feeding behavior. The hypothalamus and the lower brainstem monitor the internal environment of the body and are involved in the control of feeding behavior to maintain energy balance and homeostasis (homeostasis-dependent feeding behavior). On the other hand, humans and animals, when placed in an environment similar to modern society (e.g., cafeterias), where organisms can easily ingest highly preferred foods, consume more than necessary (homeostasis-independent feeding behavior). The emotion/reward system, including the amygdala and nucleus accumbens, is involved in this type of feeding behavior. These two control systems interact in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), where feeding behavior is controlled by systems with higher activity. In modern society, there is abundant information on food, and high-calorie foods such as snacks are readily available. Thus, in modern society, the homeostasis-independent control system easily surpasses the homeostasis-dependent control system, which results in obesity. Various feeding and eating disorders might be ascribed to dysregulations in the two control systems. In the future, more effective treatments for feeding and eating disorders can be developed by elucidating the mechanisms of these two control systems.
Part of the book: New Insights Into Metabolic Syndrome