In the human organism, the circadian regulation of carbohydrates metabolism is essential for the glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Unbalances in glucose and insulin tissue and blood levels have been linked to a variety of metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Melatonin, the pineal hormone, is the key mediator molecule for the integration between the cyclic environment and the circadian distribution of physiological and behavioral processes and for the optimization of energy balance and body weight regulation, events that are crucial for a healthy organism. This chapter reviews the interplay between melatonin modulatory physiological effects, glucose homeostasis and metabolic balance, from the endocrinology perspective. The tremendous effect of melatonin in the regulation of metabolic processes is observed from the chronobiology perspective, considering melatonin as a major synchronizer of the circadian internal order of the physiological processes involved in energy metabolism.
Part of the book: Carbohydrate