The systemic renin-angiotensin system mainly regulates blood pressure and maintains kidney function. Recent studies have realized that renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been found in many tissues, such as heart, liver, and kidney. Although RAS in heart and kidney has been well documented, the RAS in the liver has been evaluated in a few studies. Therefore, this chapter will be assessed it. Based on findings, RAS in the liver has presented almost all of its components, such as angiotensin-I (Ang-I), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1), angiotensin type-2 receptor (AT2), named as classical RAS. Expect these components, the local RAS has had alternative pathway components, including angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and chymase. Classical RAS has an opposite effect of alternative RAS. Although these local RAS might not be such a crucial for the tissue, it could be a more vital function under pathophysiologic conditions. The chapter the local RAS in the liver the under both physiologic and pathophysiologic conditions is highlighted.
Part of the book: Renin-Angiotensin System
Cancer prevalence is scaling up each year. Anthracycline groups are still the best chemotherapeutic agent. The most popular anticancer drug in the group is doxorubicin (DOX). Unfortunately, DOX has potent toxicity on noncancerous tissues, e.g., heart, kidneys, etc. However, it is well documented that the severest toxicity of the drug affects heart tissue. Of course, some reasons have been suggested why and/or how the heart is so vulnerable to toxicity. The primary mechanism responsible for DOX’s cardiospecific toxicity remains unidentified so far; however, mitochondrial dysfunction induced by DOX is now considered one of the leading reasons for DOX’s toxicities and undesired side effects. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen production in the heart is a significant contributor to developing mitochondrial dysfunction-exposed DOX based on a variety of evidence. The objective of this review chapter is to critically evaluate and highlight the role of mitochondria in the development of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity.
Part of the book: Mitochondrial Diseases