The awareness is growing of health hazards and pharmaceutical benefits of micro-/nano-aerosol particles which are mostly nonspherical and hygroscopic, and categorized as “unconventional” vs. solid spheres. Accurate and realistic numerical models will significantly contribute to answering public health questions. In this chapter, fundamentals and future trends of computational fluid-particle dynamics (CFPD) models for lung aerosol dynamics are discussed, emphasizing the underlying physics to simulate unconventional inhaled aerosols such as fibers, droplets, and vapors. Standard simulation procedures are presented, including reconstruction of the human respiratory system, CFPD model formulation, finite-volume mesh generation, etc. Case studies for fiber and droplet transport and deposition in lung are also provided. Furthermore, challenges and future directions are discussed to develop next-generation models. The ultimate goal is to establish a roadmap to link different numerical models, and to build the framework of a new multiscale numerical model, which will extend exposure and lung deposition predictions to health endpoints, e.g., tissue and delivered doses, by calculating absorption and translocation into alveolar regions and systemic regions using discrete element method (DEM), lattice Boltzmann method (LBM), and/or physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. It will enable simulations of extremely complex airflow-vapor-particle-structure dynamics in the entire human respiratory system at detailed levels.
Part of the book: Aerosols