The miniaturization of reactions by designing nanoliter-scale PCR platforms, as Taqman® OpenArray®, Dynamic Array™, or SmartChip, has been a big step forward in real-time PCR. Each platform has some particular characteristics that differentiate them. These nanoliter-scale PCR platforms enable substantial savings in the amount of reagents and sample because the reaction volumes are at nanoliter levels. In addition, it is possible to perform thousands of reactions in a few hours. Therefore, high-throughput real-time PCR platforms result in promising systems that are capable of processing a large number of samples simultaneously and also to perform a large number of assays per sample. All of this can be translated in the amazing applicability of this technology in all kinds of analytical fields, such as medical research, animal science, and food safety, among others.
Part of the book: Polymerase Chain Reaction for Biomedical Applications
Salmonella is a major food-borne pathogen around the world. In the European Union (EU), this pathogen is responsible of more than 90,000 human cases of salmonellosis every year. Salmonellosis in normally linked to the consumption of contaminated food, especially poultry products as meat, eggs and the products elaborated with them. Several control measures have been implemented in the EU to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella in the food chain. However, the ability of Salmonella to form biofilm along the food chain difficult its eradication. Also, ineffective cleaning and disinfection measures favors biofilm formation. The widespread use of biocides along the food chain has led to the emergence of resistant Salmonella strains. Therefore, it is necessary to look for alternatives to biocides to eradicate Salmonella biofilms. In this chapter we evaluate the use of bacteriocins and bacteriophages and their derivatives as a new alternative to eliminate Salmonella biofilms along the food chain.
Part of the book: Salmonella spp
Animal food production is one of the most powerful European economic sectors; however, this sector is facing new challenge due to the development of bacteria with resistant genes, and consequently, restriction on the administration of antibiotics. Limitation, at the moment, is focused on those antibiotics employed in human medicines. Therefore, it is necessary to improve as much as possible animals’ health and reduce diseases. Among others, alternatives include adequate animal handling, hygienic facilities, quality food, or vaccines. Probiotics also arise as a good alternative due to their already known properties as intestinal microbiota modulators, improving the immune functions and reducing the risk and the development of illness. Significant data can found scientific literature that demonstrates probiotics benefits when they are administrated to the animals through diet. However, to be able to apply all these findings in a specific animal species, at a particular production animal life stage and at a industrialize scale, it is necessary to compile and organize reported information. This chapter presents the most recent and relevant finding on the use of probiotics in swine production.
Part of the book: Antibiotics and Probiotics in Animal Food