The aim of this study was to review the latest findings about the neural plasticity on the adenosinergic neural network after the exposition to hypoxia. Identification of the neuromorphology that supports the physiological adaptations underlying the response of organisms to environmental factors including injurious exposures (specifically hypoxia) has been one of the major research challenges in biomedicine. To know these responses would connect the metabolic needs and the vegetative neuronal networks in an integrated way. Hypoxia refers to a state in which oxygen supply is insufficient and several neural cardiorespiratory structures are responsible for correcting and preventing its effects. Although hypoxia is often a pathological condition, variations in arterial oxygen concentrations can be part of the normal physiological responses, for example, during hypoventilation training or strenuous physical exercise. Also, hypoxia is a serious consequence of preterm birth in the neonate. Neural plasticity is a persistent change in the morphology and/or function based on prior experiences, and it is crucial for understanding its effects. Plasticity is well evident when the triggering experience occurs early in life; but in the case of respiratory control plasticity, could also be present in adult life. The regulation of adenosinergic neural network maturation, especially in central cardiorespiratory areas, could provide new perspectives in respiratory new‐born distress symptoms.
Part of the book: Hypoxia and Human Diseases