Endometriosis is a chronic, nonmalignant and estrogen‐dependent disease in which endometrial glandular epithelium and stroma are outside the uterine cavity (ovaries, peritoneum, or rectovaginal septum). The prevalence is estimated from 2 to 10% in women of childbearing age and it rises up to 50% in women with infertility. Despite maximal efforts, the therapy of first choice in the management of endometriosis is still unclear. The aim of this chapter is to present an update of its management, emphasizing the benefits and disadvantages of surgical methods. We performed a systematic literature search on the PubMed database of English literature (search terms: endometrioma, surgery, ovarian reserve, assisted reproductive technologies) from 2010 to 2014. For endometrioma, operative laparoscopy proved to be the gold standard. Surgical procedures consist of partial excision of the cyst wall and electro‐coagulation of the rest. Stripping technique may be a better method for reducing the recurrence of pain symptoms, recurrence, and reoperation rates, but it raises concerns about ovarian reserve. For endometriosis, surgery often includes partial rectum or sacrouterine ligament resection. Hysterectomy is not obligatory and refused by the young patients. The approach should be laparoscopic and if necessary vaginal assisted. Good cooperation between various disciplines (gynecology, surgery, urology) is mandatory.
Part of the book: Fertility-oriented Female Reproductive Surgery
Congenital anomalies of the kidney, urinary tract and genitalia anomalies are among the most frequent types of congenital malformations. Many can be diagnosed by means of ultrasound examination during pregnancy. Some will be discovered after birth. Kidney and urinary malformations represent 20% of all birth defects, appearing in 3–7 cases at 1000 live births. Environmental factors (maternal diabetes or intrauterine exposure to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors) and genetic factors (inherited types of diseases) seem to be among causes that lead to the disturbance of normal nephrogenesis and generate anomalies of the reno-urinary tract. It is very important to diagnose and differentiate between the abnormalities incompatible with life and those that are asymptomatic in the newborn. The former requires interruption of pregnancy, whereas the latter could lead to saving the renal function if diagnosed antenatally. In many cases, the congenital anomalies of the urinary and genital tract may remain asymptomatic for a long time, even up until adulthood, and can be at times the only manifestation of a complex systemic disease. Some can manifest in more than one member in the family. This is the reason why the accurate genetic characterization is needed; it can help give not only the patient but also her family the appropriate genetic counseling, and also, in some cases, the management may prevent severe complications.
Part of the book: Congenital Anomalies