Delivering the drug to the target site with a desired concentration to provide therapeutic effect is a major problem in the drug delivery system. Effectiveness, poor distribution and lack of selectivity are the drawbacks of the conventional dosage form. Recently Nanotechnology has been given much attention in various fields specifically in the biomedical application. Material includes organic, inorganic, polymeric and lipid-based nanobiomaterials after surface modification; it has been utilized for drug and gene delivery systems. Viral and non-viral vectors are the two types in gene delivery utilizing genetic materials like DNA plasmids, RNA and siRNA. Cellular and extracellular barriers are the two main barriers in gene delivery. The basic mechanism involved in the gene delivery is an introduction of a gene encoding a functional protein altering the expression of an endogenous gene or owning the capacity to cure or prevent the progression of a disease. Nanoparticle surface features like particle shape and surface charge are having major roles in the gene delivery. To provide the site-specific delivery various properties like nature of polymer, particle size, solubility, biocompatibility, biodegradability and nanoparticle surface features are need to be considered. Gene delivery has been utilized for various disease treatments such as cancer, AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases.
Part of the book: Advanced Technology for Delivering Therapeutics