Nowadays ecotoxicology plays the role of a theoretician – methodical unifying centre for the optimization of man – biosphere relations and sustainable existence of life on the Earth. The main basis for its development is the classical toxicology—studies of chemical compounds’ effects on man, but ecotoxicology is the original part, following it. According to the modern concept, the ecotoxicology is a science for migration, transformation and utilization of different toxic ingredients (with organic, inorganic or organic-mineral chemical nature; with natural biotic or abiotic origin and artificial, mainly anthropogenic origin) in the environment and their impact on Macro- biological systems with different levels of integration as groups of individuals, population, community, ecosystem, etc. studied in ecology. In this chapter, the types of ecotoxicological tests are discussed in detail with a set of examples about used species, advantages and disadvantages of different types of toxicity testing. The application of exposed natural ecosystems or man-made analogue systems is also commented as the environmentally more realistic approach for ecotoxicological testing. These test systems are increasingly becoming in aquatic ecotoxicology practice, but they are contemporary challenge in terrestrial testing. The development of test systems for realistic assessment of contaminant toxicity is essential for the efficient control of human influence on the environment.
Part of the book: Toxicology