Cerebrovascular diseases (cerebral infarction, intracranial haemorrhage and vasculopathy) are common manifestations of sickle cell disease (SCD) associated with significant morbidity and mortality. These neurological complications and potential corresponding neuropsychological compromise may have devastating consequences for a child with SCD. This chapter aims to review the neurological complications in SCD using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as both a qualitative and a quantitative tool for detecting abnormality. Advanced MRI pulse sequences, such as high-resolution 3D T1-weighted imaging for brain volumetrics, diffusion tensor imaging for white matter integrity and non-invasive perfusion MRI for cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurement, can provide additional information about the structure and function of brain tissue beyond the scope of conventional clinical imaging. These studies have set to establish quantitative biomarkers that relate to disease severity and neuropsychological sequelae.
Part of the book: Sickle Cell Disease