A kinetic model for pollutant degradation by the UV/H2O2 system was developed. The model includes the background matrix effect, the reaction intermediate action, and the pH change during time. It was validated for water containing phenol and three different ways of calculating HO° level time-evolution were assumed (non-pseudo-steady, pseudo-steady and simplified pseudo-steady state; denoted as kinetic models A, B and C, respectively). It was found that the kind of assumption considered was not significant for phenol degradation. On the other hand, taking into account the high levels of HO2° formed in the reaction solution compared to HO° concentration (~10–7 M >>>> ~10–14 M), HO2° action in transforming phenol was considered. For this purpose, phenol-HO2° reaction rate constant was calculated and estimated to be 1.6x103 M-1 s-1, resulting in the range of data reported from literature. It was observed that, although including HO2° action allowed slightly improving the kinetic model degree of fit, HO° developed the major role in phenol conversion, due to their high oxidation potential. In this sense, an effective level of HO° can be determined in order to be maintained throughout the UV/H2O2 system reaction time for achieving an efficient pollutant degradation.
Part of the book: Physico-Chemical Wastewater Treatment and Resource Recovery
Failure analysis of the blades of a horizontal axis hydrokinetic turbine of 1 kW is presented. Analysis consisted of the determination of the pressure on the blade surface using Computational Fluid Dynamics, and the calculation of the stress distribution in the blade due to hydrodynamic, inertial and gravitational loads using the finite element methods. The results indicate that the blade undergoes significant vibration and deflection during the operation, and the centrifugal and hydrodynamic loads considerably affect the structural response of the blade; however, the stresses produced in all of the analysed models did not exceed the safe working stresses of the materials used to manufacture the blade. Modal analysis was conducted to calculate first significant natural frequencies. Results were studied in depth against operating frequency of the turbine. After carrying out the modal analysis, harmonic analysis was also done to see the response of the turbine under dynamic loading. It was observed that the turbine is safe in its entire operating range as far as phenomenon of resonance is concerned. Additionally, it was observed that maximum harmonic response of the turbine on the application of dynamic loading is far lesser than its failure limit within the specified operating range.
Part of the book: Renewable Hydropower Technologies
Hydrokinetic turbines are one of the technological alternatives to generate and supply electricity for rural communities isolated from the national electrical grid with almost zero emission. These technologies may appear suitable to convert kinetic energy of canal, river, tidal, or ocean water currents into electricity. Nevertheless, they are in an early stage of development; therefore, studying the hydrokinetic system is an active topic of academic research. In order to improve their efficiencies and understand their performance, several works focusing on both experimental and numerical studies have been reported. For the particular case of flow behavior simulation of hydrokinetic turbines with complex geometries, the use of computational fluids dynamics (CFD) nowadays is still suffering from a high computational cost and time; thus, in the first instance, the analysis of the problem is required for defining the computational domain, the mesh characteristics, and the model of turbulence to be used. In this chapter, CFD analysis of a H-Darrieus vertical axis hydrokinetic turbines is carried out for a rated power output of 0.5 kW at a designed water speed of 1.5 m/s, a tip speed ratio of 1.75, a chord length of 0.33 m, a swept area of 0.636 m2, 3 blades, and NACA 0025 hydrofoil profile.
Part of the book: Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations