Perovskite solar cell (PSC) can be regarded as a continuation of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) in terms of the sensitization phenomena that occurred in the functioning molecules. In 2012, a breakthrough propose has been made for the sensitization of PSCs, in which a solid‐state structure is offered as an equivalent sensitizer used in DSSC. The power conversion efficiency (PCE) of those solid‐state cells reached about twofold of its initial value during the past several years. Immediately after, the researchers followed this propose worldwide. They have introduced an improved efficiency of as much as 20%, which was originally started from its initial value of 4%, just in 4 years. Thus, the new concept, solid perovskite molecules, has eliminated the need for the liquid electrolyte in DSSC while still carrying the advantages of organic solar cells (OSCs). Therefore, the distinctive material of PSC—the organometallic halide molecules (also known as OMH or organic‐inorganic trihalides)—inclined an unexpected reputation for solar cell (SC) researches. Hence, it seems that we will witness a new age for solar conversion devices depending on the recent hopeful progresses on PSCs. The high rate of photovoltaic (PV) conversion capacity in PSC is generally expressed by the basic properties possessed by the organic‐inorganic perovskite crystal, such as better optical properties and well diffused charges along huge distances during the charge transport. In addition, a low temperature processing is applicable during its production. Moreover, the perovskite layer provides a tunable band gap. Therefore, depending on better developments on designed molecules, PSC may gain extreme performances compared to the other competitors, such as OSC or DSSC devices. This chapter starts with a general discussion on the need for an affordable clean energy conversion device that is urgent for the future of humanity, due to publicly well‐known global warming issue. In Section 2, basic properties of PSC are mentioned together with their structure and working principles. Section 3 continues with an overview on organometallic perovskite molecules after a brief introductory history is presented. The absorption and band gap properties are also discussed. Since most perovskite materials need a hole transporting material (HTMs) within the PSC, the kinds of HTMs that are designed for PSCs are described in Section 3. The rendering of long‐term stabilization has special importance for PSCs since the instability issue remained idle in spite of those recent increased efficiency values attained by various research groups. Therefore, the stability issues are discussed in a separate part in Section 4. We finally close the chapter discussing the challenges and opportunities relying on the chapter content. We note that the recent investigations on PSCs have special importance for its large‐scale realization in order to make them ready for the photovoltaic industry of the future. Hence, there are various announced meetings focusing on its mass production due to the unexpected sharp rise of the perovskite efficiency in the last 6 years. Hence, all the new cutting‐edge scientific findings are also dealt with commercialization issues now, in order to attain the desired low cost fabrication, including the yield of high purity and the formation of smooth films during the continual manufacture of perovskite layers.
Part of the book: Nanostructured Solar Cells
Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are well-oriented molecular structures that are formed by the adsorption of an active site of a surfactant onto a substrate’s surface. Aromatic SAMs were used to modify anode/hole transport layer interface in order to achieve preferable barrier alignment and charge carrier injection from anode to an organic-based thin film material. Other functions of SAMs include current blocking layers or moisture penetration blocking layers, dipolar surface layers for enhanced charge injection, and modification of work function of a material such as graphene acting as a spacer to physically separate and electrically decouple it from the substrate. Additionally, SAM modification of graphene leads to its electronic passivation at layers’ edges, elimination of defects, and enhanced adhesion and stability. The surface modification with molecules capable of forming SAM is a fast, simple, low-cost, and effective technique for the development of novel materials especially for the production of electronic devices. The ability to modify its properties by SAM technique has opened up a wide range of applications in electronic and optoelectronic devices.
Part of the book: Advances in Condensed-Matter and Materials Physics