Central nervous system (CNS) tumors, although rare, represent a group of neoplasms that have a disproportionate morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in our understanding of tumor pathogenesis coupled with improvements in therapeutic options, overall survival for primary brain tumors remains dismal. Although challenging, newer approaches such as brachytherapy, immunotherapy, and electric field generators are currently being evaluated in the clinical setting with promising results. The field of immunotherapy in neurooncology is still in its infancy, but several advances have already been made, including the development of tumor vaccines, utilization of immune checkpoint inhibitors, and activation of tumor dendritic cells to stimulate the host’s immune system. Recent advances in noninvasive electric fields have been applied to the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) with encouraging clinical outcome. In this chapter, we will review the latest advances in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme with a focus on immunotherapy.
Part of the book: New Approaches to the Management of Primary and Secondary CNS Tumors