Heart failure affects more than 23 million people worldwide, and its prognosis remains poor. Hypertension is one of the most prominent human health problem and places individuals at a higher risk for heart failure. Several factors interplay the development of hypertension contributing for decompensated heart hypertrophy. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to be the foremost regulator of blood pressure. Many evidences have pointed out the importance of RAS and its key mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II), on signaling pathways involved in cardiac remodeling. The Ang II-induced hypertrophic effects seem to be related to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under oxidative stress conditions, as those observed in hypertension and heart failure, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) is activated. Ang II is connected with TNF-α and TGF-β by ROS-NF-κB-MMP mechanisms, which are involved in heart failure. The rationale of the present chapter is structured on the progression of heart failure related to Ang II, TNF-α and TGF-β by common signaling pathways. Pharmacotherapeutics approaches to the heart failure abound, but the mortality rates remain high. This chapter will also describe molecular mechanisms involved in heart failure highlighting that TGF-β and/or TNF-α inhibitors could contribute to treatment to this serious clinical condition.
Part of the book: Renin-Angiotensin System