Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for nearly 80% of diagnosed lung cancers. Due to the predominantly late diagnosis of NSCLC and drug resistance in the targeted therapy approaches, the 5-year overall survival rate is still less than 19%. Thus, novel diagnosis and treatment approaches are needed. Many efforts have been made to achieve great progress in understanding the genomic landscape of NSCLC and the molecular mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides with little or no protein-coding potential. They are encoded across the genome and are involved in a wide range of cellular and biological processes. Dysregulation of lncRNAs is associated with a number of cancer-related processes, including epigenetic regulation, microRNA silencing, and DNA damage. Furthermore, lncRNAs have been reported to have the potential as biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the therapy targets. Here in this chapter, we review some well-characterized lncRNAs associated with NSCLCs and the potential of lncRNAs as biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of NSCLCs.
Part of the book: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Lung Cancer