We consider immigrants living in Norway and their behavior with respect to mobility. Using cross-sectional data, we employ a trinomial logit model. An immigrant may (i) move to another centrality level, (ii) emigrate, or (iii) stay at the same centrality level as in the previous period. We carry out separate estimations for eight different groups, brought about combining four centrality levels with two genders. To assess the effect of different explanatory variables related to (i) duration of residence in Norway, (ii) labor market status, (iii) reason for immigration, (iv) the extent of education and (v) family size and composition, we calculate marginal effects. In line with earlier results, we obtain that longer duration of residence tends to decrease the probability of emigration and that immigrants who have stated escape as the reason for immigration to Norway tends to have lower probabilities for emigration than those who have stated work as the reason.
Part of the book: People's Movements in the 21st Century
Using Norwegian panel data, we specify and estimate transfer share equations for immigrants belonging to different subgroups. The share measures how import transfers are relative to a gross income concept incorporating transfers and gross income coming from labor market participation. For both genders, we consider three types of immigrants: refugees, individuals immigrating for reunification with refugees and individuals immigrating because of work. The transfer share for an individual depends on different characteristics of it. The explanatory variables we consider are related to age, duration of stay in Norway, family composition, educational attainment and area of geographical residence in Norway. Unobserved individual-specific heterogeneity is represented by random effects. Of special concern, not at least from a policy point of view, is the effect of duration of stay on the transfer shares. For refugees and individuals reunifying with refugees we find, at least for a substantial number of years, that the transfer share decreases as the duration of stay becomes longer. An essential part of the analysis is that we compare the effects across gender. Among the refugees we find that the effect of duration of stay is quite similar for men and women.
Part of the book: Immigration and Development