Lung cancer is the major death-related cancer in both men and women, due to late diagnostic and limited treatment efficacy. The angiogenic process that is responsible for the support of tumor progression and metastasis represents one of the main hallmarks of cancer. The role of VEGF signaling in angiogenesis is well‐established, and we summarize the role of semaphorins and their related receptors or hypoxia‐related factors role as prone of tumor microenvironment in angiogenic mechanisms. Newly, noncoding RNA transcripts (ncRNA) were identified to have vital functions in miscellaneous biological processes, including lung cancer angiogenesis. Therefore, due to their capacity to regulate almost all molecular pathways related with altered key genes, including those involved in angiogenesis and its microenvironment, ncRNAs can serve as diagnosis and prognosis markers or therapeutic targets. We intend to summarize the latest progress in the field of ncRNAs in lung cancer and their relation with hypoxia‐related factors and angiogenic genes, with a particular focus on ncRNAs relation to semaphorins.
Part of the book: Physiologic and Pathologic Angiogenesis
Nanoparticles offer a lot of advantageous backgrounds for many applications due to their physical, chemical and biological properties. Their different composition (metals, lipids, polymers, peptides) and shapes (spheres, rods, pyramids, flowers and so on) are influenced by the synthesis methods and functionalization procedures. However, in the medical field, researchers focus on the biocompatibility and biodegradability of the nanoparticles in their attempts for a targeted therapy in which the nanocarriers need to bypass certain biological barriers. Moreover, the increased interest in molecular imaging has brought nanoparticles in the spotlight for their applications in two distinct directions: therapy and diagnosis. Furthermore, recent advances in nanoparticle designs have introduced novel nano-objects suitable as both detection and delivery systems at the same time, thus providing theranostic applications.
Part of the book: Engineered Nanomaterials