Gut microbiota is essential for the development of the intestinal immune system, protecting the host against pathogens and harmful inflammatory processes. Germ‐free animals have smaller Peyer's patches, fewer immune cells and impaired immunoglobulin A (IgA) secretion, fewer intraepithelial lymphocytes, as well as compromised production of antimicrobial peptides. Mucositis (mucosal barrier injury) is a major oncological problem caused by chemotherapeutic agents. Intestinal mucositis translates into a broad spectra of clinical symptoms (diarrhea, vomiting) and can be worsened by neutropenia and antibiotics. Since IECs do not regulate intestinal homeostasis by themselves, but require symbiotic coordination with commensal bacteria and local gut leukocytic cells, the role of intestinal microbiota in the development and severity of mucositis induced by chemotherapeutic products became an issue. The present chapter reviews the interplay between microbiota, immune system, and anticancer therapy. The published researches in this field showed that microbiota has immunomodulatory effect on the anticancer immune response, both in the presence and in the absence of chemotherapy. Animal and human studies evoked that the anticancer response depends on microbiota variability.
Part of the book: Anti-cancer Drugs
In the human organism, the circadian regulation of carbohydrates metabolism is essential for the glucose homeostasis and energy balance. Unbalances in glucose and insulin tissue and blood levels have been linked to a variety of metabolic disorders such as obesity, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Melatonin, the pineal hormone, is the key mediator molecule for the integration between the cyclic environment and the circadian distribution of physiological and behavioral processes and for the optimization of energy balance and body weight regulation, events that are crucial for a healthy organism. This chapter reviews the interplay between melatonin modulatory physiological effects, glucose homeostasis and metabolic balance, from the endocrinology perspective. The tremendous effect of melatonin in the regulation of metabolic processes is observed from the chronobiology perspective, considering melatonin as a major synchronizer of the circadian internal order of the physiological processes involved in energy metabolism.
Part of the book: Carbohydrate