The Rashba effect is a momentum‐dependent splitting of spin bands in two‐dimensional systems such as surface, interface and heterostructure. The effect is caused by broken space‐inversion symmetry and spin‐orbit coupling and allows to manipulate and generate the spin by the electric fields, that is, without the magnetic field. It means that the devices applied to the Rashba effect have many advantages. Bismuth is known as a promising candidate to investigate the surface Rashba effect, and the spin structure of Bi surface has also been intensively discussed. However, it is unclear to what extent the so far believed simple vortical spin structure is adequate. To understand the surface properties of the Rashba system is particularly important when utilizing the Rashba effect to the spintronic devices, since it is desirable to control the spin polarization when developing new types of devices. In this chapter, we report that the surface spin states of the Bi thin film exhibit unusual characteristics unlike the conventional Rashba splitting by using a spin‐ and angle‐resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurement.
Part of the book: Modern Technologies for Creating the Thin-film Systems and Coatings