A significant reappearance of tuberculosis (TB) was observed in industrialized countries during the last two decades. This is due to the spread of HIV infection itself and to today's migratory phenomenon as a consequence of wealth disparity, poverty, wars and political persecutions. This proportion is expected to increase and represents an important cause of the overall resurgence of the TB epidemic and drug‐resistant TB in Western Europe and the USA. TB is currently one of the leading causes of death worldwide and a health problem in high‐income countries. Although WHO global TB report 2015 with its “STOP TB” strategy has the goal to eliminate TB as a public health problem by 2050, TB shows no signs of disappearing despite some decline in high‐income countries. In order to intensify the fights against this deadly disease, further efforts should be aimed to improve examination/detection processes to accurately determine all kinds of TB, and how best to enhance TB control through a coordinated medical screening program of migrants for active TB. Migration in itself is not a definitive risk for TB. Stressful living condition, social isolation, poverty, political fear/persecution, and difficulties to access to health care can expose these individuals to the risk of TB infection during and after the migration process. This chapter aims to discuss and highlight all these issues.
Part of the book: People's Movements in the 21st Century