Nepal has endowed high potential of water resources, covering 395,000 ha (48%) area within 45,000 km in length of 6000 rivers with 170 billion m3 annual runoff and 45,610 MW feasible hydroelectricity generation. Since 1911, 500 kW power generation at Pharping, now reached 782.45 MW production in 2016. Nepal government has planned to increase its current 67.3% access in electricity to 1426 MW (87%), by 2022. Globally, 16.6% generation of hydroelectricity, 1,079 GW production, in 2015 will be increased to 1,473 GW by 2040 as projected. Although, hydropower is considered as a renewable clean energy, dam closure, influence within the downstream river and connected ecosystems have consequent impacts on hydropower production. Nepal’s topography offered more RoR types of hydropower and has more risk of landslide, flooding, GLOFs, LDOFs, and flash floods. Despite, Nepal contributes 0.027% of total global Green House Gas (GHG) emissions; Nepal has focused on renewable energy, hydropower production, targeting 12000 MW by 2030 to fulfill its growing demand of 11,500 MW. Consequent development of clean energy, GHG reduction, single Bhotekoshi hydropower can reduce 160092 tons CO2/year. The energy-related CO2 emissions increased 43.2 billion metric tons by 2040 globally, which can be reduced through promotion of clean energy.
Part of the book: Renewable Hydropower Technologies