Chemical deposition methodology is a well-understood and highly documented category of deposition techniques. In recent years, chemical bath deposition (CBD) and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have garnered considerable attention as an effective alternative to other deposition methods. The applicability of CVD and CBD for industrial-sized operations is perhaps the most attractive aspect, in that thin-film deposition costs inversely scale with the processing batch size without loss of desirable optoelectronic properties in the materials. A downside of the method is that the optoelectronic characteristics of these films are highly susceptible to spurious deposition growth mechanisms. For example, increasing the temperature of the chemical deposition bath can shift the deposition mechanisms from ion-by-ion (two dimensional) precipitation to bulk solution cluster-by-cluster (three dimensional) formation which then deposit. This drastically changes the structural, optical, and electrical characteristics of CBD-deposited thin films. A similar phenomenon is observed in CVD deposited materials. Thus, it is of great interest to study the coupling between the deposition parameters and subsequent effects on film performance. Such studies have been conducted to elucidate the correlation between growth mechanisms and film performance. Here, we present a review of the current literature demonstrating that simple changes can be made in processing conditions to optimize the characteristics of these films for optoelectronic applications.
Part of the book: Thin Film Processes