Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant compound, is isolated from the rhizomes of the plant Curcuma longa Linn. Most of the anti-inflammatory effects can be explained by the efficient inhibition of nuclear factor-κB–mediated and activation of PPARγ expression. These studies have been investigating the effects of curcumin on the gastric microcirculation, cytokine production after Helicobacter pylori–induced gastric inflammation, gastric cancer, drug-induced liver injury, and alcoholic liver disease (ALD). The results show that curcumin prevents indomethacin-induced gastropathy via decreased leukocyte-endothelium interaction at postcapillary venule, decreased ICAM-1 and TNF-α level, and improved gastric microcirculation. Curcumin attenuated gastric inflammation and gastric cancer via reduced NF-κB p65 expression, decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level, and macromolecular leakage in the gastric mucosa. Curcumin prevented liver injury through decreased oxidative stress, reduced liver inflammation, and restored GSH. Moreover, curcumin could decrease hepatocyte apoptosis and improved PPARγ protein expression in alcohol-induced liver injury.
Part of the book: Superfood and Functional Food