The energy equipment usable for solid biofuel incineration usually operates upon aggressive conditions. The internal structures (lining) of the equipment are made of refractory materials that are affected by combined loads: thermal, mechanical and chemical (i.e. high temperature–up to 1200°C, chemical impact of alkaline compounds and slag, repeating thermal shocks, abrasive effect caused by solid particles and so on). A majority of traditional refractories usable for lining in such equipment are not durable. Upon certain conditions of use (such as high local temperatures, influence of alkaline biofuel combustion products and so on), durability of the traditional materials is 1–2 years only. The opportunities of new refractory materials application should be set upon taking into account the conditions of operation for biofuel boilers of specific types. In this section - the data on the peculiarities of using refractory materials in biofuel boilers are reviewed, and the impact of aggressive operating conditions of such thermal equipment on the properties of refractory materials is discussed. In addition, the investigations results of refractory castables alkali resistance and its explosive spalling are discussed. The recommendations for use of refractory materials in biofuel boilers are also presented.
Part of the book: Frontiers in Bioenergy and Biofuels