In order to control microbial resistance against commonly used antibiotics, it is indispensable to develop novel and efficient antimicrobial agents. For this purpose, metallic nanoparticles (mainly inorganic) with their antimicrobial activites represent an effective solution for this global problem. However, synthesis of nanoparticles involves the use of expensive, poisonous and dangerous chemicals responsible for different biological and environmental hazards. This fact increases the necessity of developing environment-friendly procedure by means of green synthesis (using plants) and extra-biological methods (using microbes such as bacteria and fungi). More recently, metallic nanoparticles, derived from fungal sources, have demonstrated their potential not only as a new-generation antimicrobial agents but also as anticancer agents. Therefore, this chapter is aimed to explore the various nanoparticles producing fungi with ultimate objective of elucidating the possible (i) mechanism of biosynthesis of metallic NPs by various fungi and (ii) mode of action of these mycosynthesized NPs on bacterial cell. This chapter would certainly increase our knowledge about interaction of nanoparticles with bacterial cell for their use in health biotechnology.
Part of the book: Functionalized Nanomaterials
The emergence of carbapenem-resistant bacterial pathogens is a significant and mounting health concern across the globe. At present, carbapenem resistance (CR) is considered as one of the most concerning resistance mechanisms and mainly found in gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Although carbapenem resistance has been recognized in Enterobacteriaceae from last 20 years or so, recently it emerged as a global health issue as CR clonal dissemination of various Enterobacteriaceae members especially E. coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae are reported from across the globe at an alarming rate. Phenotypically, carbapenems resistance is in due to the two key mechanisms, like structural mutation coupled with β-lactamase production and the ability of the pathogen to produce carbapenemases which ultimately hydrolyze the carbapenem. Additionally, penicillin-binding protein modification and efflux pumps are also responsible for the development of carbapenem resistance. Carbapenemases are classified into different classes which include Ambler classes A, B, and D. Several mobile genetic elements (MGEs) have their potential role in carbapenem resistance like Tn4401, Class I integrons, IncFIIK2, IncF1A, and IncI2. Taking together, resistance against carbapenems is continuously evolving and posing a significant health threat to the community. Variable mechanisms that are associated with carbapenem resistance, different MGEs, and supplementary mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in association with virulence factors are expanding day by day. Timely demonstration of this global health concern by using molecular tools, epidemiological investigations, and screening may permit the suitable measures to control this public health menace.
Part of the book: Pathogenic Bacteria
Plant growth enhancement using plant beneficial bacteria has been viewed in the sustainable agriculture as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. Actinobacteria, among the group of important plant-associated bacteria, have been widely studied for its plant growth promotion activities. Actinobacteria are considered as a limelight among agriculturists for their beneficial aspects toward plants. They are naturally occurring spore-forming bacteria inhabiting the soil and known for their plant growth-promoting and biocontrol properties. The mechanisms behind these activities include nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production, and other attributes such as antifungal production of metabolites, phytohormones, and volatile organic compound. All these activities not only enhance the plant growth but also provide resistance in plants to withstand unfavorable conditions of the environment. Hence, this chapter emphasizes on the plant growth traits of actinobacteria and how far it was studied for enhanced growth and bio-fortification.
Part of the book: Plant Stress Physiology