The use of antibiotics to fight bacterial and fungal honeybee diseases is documented since 1940s. Although at present in some countries certain antibiotics are authorized in apiculture, only few law systems provide maximum residue limits in honey. In addition, residues of worldwide banned antibiotics such as chloramphenicol, nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles have been frequently found. Therefore, the availability of reliable analytical methods able to detect concentrations at few parts per billions is fundamental. After a general overview of the available sample treatment strategies and analytical techniques, the most significantly published methods are discussed. Aminoglycosides and, to a lesser extent, tetracyclines are the more difficult classes to analyse. The current trends are the development of multiclass procedures and of micro-extraction techniques to improve the cost-effectiveness of residues control in the globalization era.
Part of the book: Honey Analysis