Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a traditional healing system with unique theoretical system. The Zang‐Fu theory is the closest mapping to body's physiological and pathological changes. Kidney is the most vital Zang organ in TCM system. However, the material basis of kidney essence is still undefined. In this chapter, we propose the idea that kidney endocrine substances, such as renin, kallikrein, erythropoietin (EPO), calcitriol, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)‐7, and klotho, are potential candidates of the material basis of kidney essence. In addition, kidney‐nourishing therapy and related Chinese medicinal herbs are also introduced.