Carbonate reservoir stimulation involves the injection of reactive fluids, most commonly hydrochloric acid (HCl), into the porous media to enhance the permeability and increase hydrocarbon production. This process results in the formation of highly conductive flow channels, or wormholes, and relies on the deep penetration of reactive fluids into the formation to maximize stimulation success. However, the rapid rate of reaction of HCl with the carbonate rock often limits the depth of live acid penetration. The reaction is mass transfer limited under typical reservoir conditions. As a result, the acid diffusion and convection rates significantly influence the success of the treatments. Microemulsions prepared with HCl as the dispersed phase offer a solution to significantly reduce the effective diffusivity and, hence, increase the depth of stimulation. This chapter presents the results of laboratory studies of carbonate dissolutions using acid microemulsions and highlights case histories of industry applications using macroemulsions for carbonate reservoir stimulation.
Part of the book: Properties and Uses of Microemulsions