Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with unknown exact etiology. Interestingly, it affects males more than females in a striking ratio (4:1), respectively. This biased ratio served as a clue to search about the factors that are sex linked and hence sex hormones and X chromosomes were good candidates. Although understanding the basic sex dimorphism in male and female brains is essential to understand autism pathology. Theories regarding the biased sex ratio in autism have been raised, and some have been supported by evidence from human studies. Furthermore, sex-linked genetic dysregulation has also been reported in autism. In this chapter, an overview of what is known about sex bias in autism is reviewed, emphasizing the importance of carrying on in uncoding the sex bias in autism.
Part of the book: Autism