Meningoencephalitis also known as encephalomeningitis is an inflammation of the brain and its surrounding protective membranes. It resembles both meningitis and encephalitis. Meningoencephalitis can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoan or as secondary sequel of other inflammations like AIDS. The viral or aseptic meningoencephalitis is mainly caused by enteroviruses, varicella‐zoster viruses, herpes simplex viruses, or measles viruses. Among the various causes of viral meningoencephalitis, herpes meningoencephalitis (HME), caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, is dreadful. It is a communicable infection spread through droplets, air, water, food, sexual intercourse, or effected mother to child. The symptoms of the disease resemble to common viral infections except few like nuchal rigidity, blurred vision, and purple body rashes. Diagnosis is carried out from body fluids like urine, saliva, blood, or cerebrospinal fluid using laboratory methods, imaging techniques, PCR or enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assays. The causes, diagnosis, prevention, and treatments of HME are discussed detail in this chapter.
Part of the book: Meningoencephalitis