Salmonella is present in most food production environments and can enter the food supply at any stage of food production from farm to fork. Control strategies for Salmonella include preharvest and postharvest aspects. Preharvest approach is very important because as a result of large-scale production, many animals could be infected with Salmonella serotypes during the primary production, causing human salmonellosis by consuming meat, milk, and eggs or foods containing ingredients of animal origin. The first step for prevention approaches is to determinate the source of infection; Salmonella serovars should be founded, and control strategies must be executed. Infection sources include vertical transmission, feed, pest (rodents and insects), wild birds, water, humans, manure, transportation coops, tractors or vehicles, and farm environment. Preventive and control strategies involve many factors, including hygiene, biosecurity procedures, animal feed surveillance, litter, manure and carcasses disposed, cleaning and disinfection programs, food interventions, diagnostic, and vaccination.
Part of the book: Current Topics in Salmonella and Salmonellosis
Aflatoxins are mold-synthetized secondary metabolites that are capable of causing disease and death in humans and other animals. Aflatoxins hold a prominent place in the discussion on feed safety as are the only mycotoxins with the regulatory framework. Feed ingredients and composition inevitably affect the susceptibility of feed to fungal and toxin contamination. To verify that legal thresholds are being complied, avoiding delivering contaminated feed to animals, and obtain correct prevalence data, analytical methods must be developed which are apt for application on a complex matrix such as animal feed. These methods should include simple screening assays and high-end confirmatory ones. Laboratories without expensive equipment can and should be able to implement methods and to analyze and detect aflatoxins. Aflatoxin contamination is a complex issue that should be assessed interdisciplinarily and farm-to-fork models should be integrated into vigilance. In this chapter, we have devoted some lines to each of the aspects mentioned above focusing on feed aflatoxin contamination.
Part of the book: Aflatoxin