Nitric oxide synthase has three isoforms; according to their roles and tissues or cells they are involved. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) takes place in neuronal signalling, endothelial NOS (eNOS) takes place in vasodilation and inducible NOS (iNOS) takes place in immune responses. nNOS and eNOS are dominant but all isoforms have various roles in the central nervous system. nNOS and eNOS separately or together works in healthy brain during cognitive processes and in unhealthy brain during the pathology of related diseases. These roles were shown by inhibitor applied or by transgenic animal model studies and also by investigating the diseases at the molecular level. Besides, it is possible to say that iNOS has roles in some neurological pathologies creating immune responses. Three different isoforms mainly serve in different systems so there are lots of researchers from various disciplines working collaterally not knowing the others related works about NOSs. Because of this, a comprehensive chapter will be valuable for neuroscientists working with either healthy or unhealthy brains. The purpose of this chapter is to gather an overview of NOSs duties during the normal processes of the brain like learning and memory formation and abnormal processes such as depression, schizophrenia and brain cancers.
Part of the book: Nitric Oxide Synthase
Beta (β)-lactam antibiotics are wide-spectrum antibiotics used for various bacterial infections. The aim of this chapter is to summarize the knowledge about the toxicity of β-lactam antibiotics and issues associated to their inappropriate use. This review has highlighted that β-lactam antibiotics are a group of products that have a chemical structure characterized by a β-lactam ring and are one of the most common antibacterial agents. However, due to the inappropriate use including abuse and misuse, resistance to the β-lactam antibiotics is currently a global crisis. Moreover, even when used appropriately, they have been linked to triggering allergic reactions like urticaria, bronchoconstriction, also severe conditions like immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia and intravascular haemolysis. It is known that some β-lactam antibiotics are neurotoxic, some are nephrotoxic, some are genotoxic and some are toxic to urogenital system. Several factors are involved in the occurrence of toxic effects including the dosage and renal status. Several strategies are possible to overcome β-lactam antibiotics-triggered toxicity, including rational prescribing, substitution combination and phage therapy which seems promising. Public health education for clinical teams and patients is essential in ensuring that this group of antibiotics are retained in therapeutics.
Part of the book: Poisoning