Limit order volume data have been here analysed using key multivariate techniques: principal components, factor and discriminant analysis. The focus lies on understanding of the covariance structure of posted quantities of the asset to be potentially sold or bought at the market. Employing the methods to data of 20 blue chip companies traded at the NASDAQ stock market in June 2016, one observes that two principal components account for approximately 85–95% of order book variation. The most important factor related to order book data variation has furthermore been the demand side (variability). The order book data variation, moreover, successfully classifies stock price movements. Potential applications include improving order execution strategies, designing trading algorithms and understanding price formation.