The main aim of this chapter is to describe the role of upper cervical spine morphology and head and neck posture in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Previously it has been documented that the posture of the head and neck was related to the morphology of the facial profile, dysfunction of the jaws, and obstruction of the upper airway. It has been shown that head posture in relation to the upper cervical spine was extended in OSA patients. New findings have been added concerning the occurrence and pattern of deviations of the upper cervical spine morphology in OSA. Furthermore, associations between upper cervical spine morphology and the morphology of the facial profile, including the cranial base in OSA patients have been reported. In addition, the occurrence of upper cervical spine morphological deviations in OSA patients seems to affect the outcome of the treatment with a mandibular advancement devise (MAD). Accordingly, it is suggested that upper cervical spine morphology and posture of the head and neck are important factors in the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment considerations in OSA patients.
Part of the book: Sleep Apnea