Barley heading date is important in adapting barley genotypes to different environments. Important factors affecting heading date in barley are temperatures, photoperiod and sowing date. Sowing date is a management option to influence heading date. It is used to reduce climatic risks such as frosts and water stress at sensitive periods during crop development. Three major genes control heading date in barley. These genes regulate photoperiod (Ppd-H1 and Ppd-H2), vernalization (Vrn- H1, Vrn-H2 and Vrn-H3) and the duration of the vegetative phase (Eps). The Ppd-H1 locus on chromosome 2(2H) regulates flowering time under long days. Ppd-H2 on 2H regulates phenology under short day length. Vernalization is mainly controlled by three loci (VRN-H1, VRN-H2 and VRN-H3), which interact in an epistatic fashion to determine vernalization sensitivity. Appropriate physiological and simulation frameworks such as that of APSIM-Barley are required to complement breeding efforts in order to determine the location of the Eps genes and describe and quantify the effects of environment and management on gene expression and their impact on yields and quality in barley.
Part of the book: Plant Growth