Excess salinity in soil is one of the major environmental factors that limit plant growth and yield of a wide variety of crops including rice. On the basis of tolerance ability toward salinity, rice is considered as salt-sensitive crop, and growth and yield of rice are greatly affected by salinity. In general, rice can tolerate a small amount of saltwater without compromising the growth and yield. However, it greatly depends on the types and species of rice and their growth stage. Salinity-induced ionic and osmotic stresses reduce rate of photosynthesis and consequently cause oxidative stress, which is also responsible for growth reduction. The negative effects of salt stress that mentioned ultimately reduced yield of most crops including rice, except some halophytes. In recent decades, researchers have developed various approaches toward making salt-tolerant rice varieties. Using phytoprotectants is found to be effective in conferring salt tolerance to rice plants. In this chapter, we reviewed the recent reports on different aspects on salt stress tolerance strategies in light of using phytoprotectants.
Part of the book: Advances in International Rice Research
Wheat is consumed as a staple food by more than 36% of world population. Wheat provides nearly 55% of the carbohydrates and 20% of the food calories consumed globally. The productivity of wheat is often adversely affected by salt stress which is associated with decreased germination percentage, reduced growth, altered reproductive behavior, altered enzymatic activity, disrupted photosynthesis, damage of ultrastructure of cellular components, hormonal imbalance, and oxidative stress. Different approaches have been adopted to improve plant performance under salt stress: introduction of genes, screening of better performing genotypes, and crop improvement through conventional breeding methods which are often not so successful and suitable due to time-consuming or reduction of plant vigor with the succession of time. Uses of exogenous phytoprotectants, seed priming, nutrient management, and application of plant hormone are convenient for improving plant performances. This chapter reviews the mechanism of damage of wheat plants under salt stress and also the recent approaches to improve growth and productivity of salt-affected wheat plants emphasizing the use of exogenous phytoprotectants from the available literature.
Part of the book: Wheat Improvement, Management and Utilization