The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection has declined among the dialysis population during the past decades. However, it still comprises a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end‐stage renal disease and hepatitis B or C, although it is associated to lower patient and allograft survival compared to seronegative kidney recipients. Novel therapeutic strategies with the use of new antiviral agents, especially direct‐acting antiviral agents in hepatitis C, have significantly changed the natural history of both hepatitis B and C not only in the general population but also in renal‐transplant recipients. We believe that future research should focus on the impact of new antiviral medications in this specific subset of patients.
Part of the book: Advances in Treatment of Hepatitis C and B
The term immune complex small-vessel vasculitis encompasses anti-glomerular basement membrane disease, cryoglobulinemic vasculitis, IgA vasculitis and hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis. These disorders affect predominantly small vessels, and renal involvement is frequent. In this chapter, we shall discuss thoroughly anti-GBM disease, cryoglobulinemic and IgA vasculitis with respect to the criteria required for the establishment of diagnosis, the specific characteristics of renal histopathology, the clinical picture, prognosis, and therapeutic management.
Part of the book: Vasculitis In Practice