The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been intensively researched, and despite a long journey for unraveling all the structures and the pathways involved, it still remains partially obscure. Inflammation was the first to be hypothesized as a potential pathway for the pathogenesis of IBS. It remains a keystone in the complex machinery of the pathogenesis that is currently considered multifactorial. Elucidating the pathogenesis of IBS is crucial for a targeted therapy of the disease. In this chapter, we review information regarding gut inflammation in IBS, underlining some of the newest data or the cornerstones. Additionally, our aim was also to review treatment currently available and future perspectives regarding anti‐inflammatory treatments for IBS. Newer techniques allow detection and research of mediators involved in inflammation, as well as their potential role to be targeted by pharmacological agents. Recent data supports not only further research of the newer agents that are currently being developed but also some of the available ones that do not have sufficient evidence. Emerging therapies that target inflammation are under evaluation, in trials. A multidrug or a multidisciplinary approach needs to be considered in some cases that fail to respond to current treatment.
Part of the book: Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Lung cancer (LC) represents the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, with most of the cases being still diagnosed in advanced stages. Recently published data estimates an increase of LC deaths worldwide from 1.6 million in 2012 to 3 million in 2035. In this context, ultrasonography (US) aspires to become the method of choice that can offer essential information concerning subpleural LC. Therefore, it is an urgent need for an objective evaluation of the role of US and US-guided biopsies as an accurate diagnosis method, as until now large studies to assess this have been seldom performed. Our main aim was to perform a review over the use of US and US-guided biopsy in the assessment of LC, and our second aim was to illustrate how US is a valuable tool in the approach of patients with LC. We also compared the advantages and disadvantages of different types of biopsy needles. Other non-invasive applications of US (contrast-enhanced US and elastography) and their usefulness for LC were also evaluated. Though transthoracic US is today underused for lung cancer diagnosis, it offers multiple advantages that seem extremely useful for the efficient management of such tumours.
Part of the book: Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Lung Cancer