The prevalence of orofacial clefts (OFCs) is nearly 10.2 per 10,000 births in the United States and 9.9 per 10,000 births worldwide. OFCs occur as a result of a break (nonfusion) of orofacial structures during development. This can occur due to a variety of reasons;prenatal exposure to many drugs and environmental factors as well as genetic factors which are implicated in the development of OFCs. While approximately 15 types of clefts have been identified, there are at least four distinct classifications of OFCs. These include complete cleft palate with cleft lip; cleft of the anterior palate, which may/may not involve cleft lip; cleft of the posterior palate; and submucosal cleft. A number of candidate genes have been identified, including transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) and homeobox genes (e.g., MSX1), among many others. What follows is a review of mouse models currently used in research and the classification of their overall contribution to known OFCs.
Part of the book: Designing Strategies for Cleft Lip and Palate Care