In modern microwave systems, rectangular microstrip patch antennas (RMPAs) are probably the most investigated topics among the planar antennas. There are several methods available in literature, for designing and analyzing such antennas, but most of them are very complex and give only approximate results. In this chapter, we have discussed the most accurate and updated computer-aided design (CAD) formulations related to probe-fed RMPA for computing its fundamental input characteristics (resonant frequency and input impedance) and improving radiation characteristics, i.e. gain and polarization purity (the parameter that signifies how much an RMPA is free from spurious modes). These formulations have evolved in the last decades and have been validated against numerous simulations and measurements. The present CAD formulas for resonant frequency and input impedance can accurately address a wide range of RMPA with patch width to patch length ratio (W/L) from 0.5 to 2.0, a substrate having thickness up to 0.23 λg where λg is the guide wavelength and relative permittivity (εr) ranging over 2.2–10.8. The role of a finite air gap on resonant frequency and gain of an RMPA have also been presented. The chapter will be surely useful to antenna designers to achieve a concrete understanding of the RMPA theory.
Part of the book: Modern Antenna Systems